This table has been adapted from “Opportunities, precipitators and criminal decisions: A reply to Wortley’s critique of situational crime prevention” (2003), Theory for Situational Crime Prevention

Increase the effort

Increase the risks

Reduce the rewards

Reduce provocation

Remove excuses

1. Target hardening

Make it more difficult for offenders to get to the target of crime

  • locks and alarms
  • anti-robbery screens

6. Extend guardianship

Encourage people to take precautions and  provide informal surveillance 

  • Encourage legitimate use of public areas

11. Conceal targets

Limit offenders’ ability to spot potential crime targets

  • shrubs in front of walls to prevent graffiti
  • safe storage of valuables

16. Reduce frustrations and stress

Encourage efficient procedures and calm settings

  • efficient queues and polite service
  • more seating

21. Set rules

Define unacceptable behaviours

  • harassment codes
  • lease agreements

2. Control access to facilities

Block access to places where crimes occur

  • security card access
  • locks and fences

7. Improve natural surveillance

Increase likelihood crime will be seen

  • improved street lighting
  • good urban design

12. Remove targets

Take potential targets of crime away from accessible places

  • store bikes inside

17. Avoid disputes

Limit situations that could promote conflicts between people

  • reduce crowding in pubs
  • fixed taxi fares

22. Provide clear instructions

Provide guidance about how to comply

  • “no parking”
  • “private property”

3. Control exits

Make it difficult for offender to leave place after crime has occurred

  • electronic merchandise tags

8. Reduce offender anonymity

Increase likelihood offenders can later be identified

  • taxi driver IDs


13. Identify property

Marking potential targets to make them traceable and/or reduce value for offender

  • engrave jewellery
  • brand cattle

18. Reduce emotional arousal

Limit emotional behaviours in situations

  • promote appropriate work conduct

23. Alert conscience

Provide reminders about unacceptable behaviours

  • “shoplifting is stealing”
  • speeding signs

4. Deflect offenders

Change the movement patterns of offenders

  • street closures
  • move-on powers

9. Utilise place managers

Use managers of places to limit crime opportunities

  • park rangers
  • store owners
  • maintain community facilities

14. Disrupt markets

Make it difficult for offenders to transfer proceeds of crime

  • monitor pawn shops
  • license street vendors

19. Neutralise peer pressure

Remove/limit influences that encourage criminal behaviour

  • “If you drink and drive, you’re a bloody idiot” campaign

24. Assist compliance

Make it easier for people to comply

  • rubbish bins
  • public lavatories
  • easy check-out counters at supermarkets

5. Control tools/weapons

Limit offender access to tools/weapons that will assist crime

  • restriction of spray paint sales to young people
  • restriction of firearms

10. Strengthen formal surveillance

Use formal guardians to limit crime opportunities

  • security guards
  • burglar alarms
  • red light cameras

15. Deny benefits

Make it difficult for offenders to use targets for intended purpose

  • ink merchandise tags
  • rapid graffiti removal

20. Discourage imitation

Limit details of crimes that people may try to replicate

  • rapid removal of graffiti
  • repair vandalism
  • censor crime details

25. Control drugs and alcohol

Promote responsible alcohol consumption and limit drugs

  • responsible service of alcohol
  • education campaigns
D.B. Cornish and R.V. Clarke
Adapted from “Opportunities, precipitators and criminal decisions: A reply to Wortley’s critique of situational crime prevention” (2003), Theory for Situational Crime Prevention
Date of Publication

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